全國勞工聯盟要求一天只工作八小時_1

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A screen shot from 'Girls Taking Time Checks, Westinghouse Works,' 1904

1904年的影片中:「在西屋工作室裡,女孩們花時間檢查產品」

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全國勞工聯盟 (National Labor Union) 於1866820日要求一天只工作八小時

一天工作幾個小時才是合理的呢?在1866820日,由技工、非技工、農夫,以及改革者組成的全國勞工聯盟要求國會下令一天只能工作八小時。

全國勞工聯盟設立的目的在於施壓國會,使之制訂相關改革法案。但是這個聯盟卻無法說服國會縮短每天的工時,而且這個組織在
1873年也自行解散。然而,這個組織的努力讓大眾警覺到勞工議題的重要性,而大眾對於勞工改革到了1870年代與1880年代也越來越積極支持。

在這部影片裡,世紀交替前的工廠裡,工人用時鐘來計算自己的工作時數。你認不認識曾經按過這種計時鐘的人呢?


How many hours is a reasonable workday? On August 20, 1866, the National Labor Union, made up of skilled and unskilled workers, farmers, and reformers, called on Congress to order an eight-hour workday.

The National Labor Union was created to pressure Congress to make labor law reforms. The Union failed to persuade Congress to shorten the workday and the labor organization itself dissolved in 1873. However, its efforts heightened public awareness of labor issues and increased public support for labor reform in the 1870s and 1880s.

In this film, turn-of-the-century factory workers keep track of the hours they worked by punching a time clock. Do you know anyone who punches a time clock?

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VIDEO CREDIT: American Mutoscope and Biograph Company. Bitzer, G.W. "Billy," cameraman. "Girls Taking Time Checks, Westinghouse Works." 1904. Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works, 1904, American Memory collections, Library of Congress.